Bone Marrow is found in the center of most bones. Inside the bone, it has many blood vessels. The blood vessels feel soft and spongy. The bone marrow is also known as stem cells. We can find two types of bone marrow in the human body. They are red and yellow bone marrow. There is blood stems cells in the Red Bone Marrow which later become red blood cells (RBC) and white blood cells (WBC). And in the case of Yellow Bone Marrow, is made of mostly fats that contain stem cells which become cartilage, fat, or bone cells. That is why Bone Marrow Donation is attended.
Bone Marrow produces and distributes RBC and WBC in the body. So, overall it functions as the source of RBC and WBC. And it will help you with fighting diseases and many more other functions of the body.
What is Bone Marrow Donation?
In simple form, Bone Marrow Donation is the process of donating your healthy stem cells or also called blood-forming cells to the required patient. It is done for the treatment of their destroyed cells due to various reasons. So, such healthy stem cells are generated by the Bone Marrow from the donor. And, it is collected or extracted by the doctors for donation. It also helps them to re-generate the RBC and WBC in their body. So, it helps to function well again.
Bone Marrow Donation Process:
There are three processes the Bone Marrow Process is done. They are as follows:
- Autologous: The process involves using the patient’s own stem cells collected before treatment and using them later on.
- Allogeneic: There is the involvement of related or unrelated donor who gives the stem cells from their bone marrow.
- Syngeneic: It is the rare process where an exact twin or identical twin donates the stem cell for the other.
Generally, the process is done by collecting healthy stem cells from the donor. And later on, it is injected inside the patent body to help them grow the healthy blood cells again. It is done in the hospital operating room. Doctors attend the surgical process to donate the Bone Marrow. The donor’s liquid marrow is extracted from both sides of the back of the pelvic bone. Needles are used by doctors to withdraw the liquid marrow. Anesthesia is supplied. So, both the donor and patient feel no pain during the donation. And such liquid marrow is transported to the patients’ location for transplant. It is also called the stem cell donation process or bone marrow donor procedure.
Who cannot Donate Bone Marrow?
There are numerous factors affecting donors from donating their Bone Marrow. The main factors are age, allergies, arthritis, asthma, autoimmune disease, blood pressure, breathing problems, sleep apnea. Besides, it also has other factors like cancer, mental health, cold/flu, depression, diabetes, kidney disease, liver disease. And, last but not least like AIDS/HIV, pregnancy, piercing (body, skin, ear), tattoos, Tuberculosis, weight, and many more. So, you have to fulfill the criteria of doctors’ recommendation to transplant the bone marrow effectively.
So, let us discuss what are the positive results you are getting from the Bone Marrow Donation. Also, what are the negative side effects you are getting from the Bone Marrow Donation?
- It is very good for the treatment or replacing the damaged cell by excessive chemotherapy or radiation. In summary, it is good for cancer patients to help them recover.
- The procedure can cure acute and chronic leukemia as well.
- If the patient is suffering from immune deficiencies then getting a donation from a strong immune body can help build the patients’ immune system.
- The transplant is also best for POEMS syndrome as well.
- The Bone Marrow Transplant can cure Adrenoleukodystrophy, Aplastic anemia, Bone marrow failure syndromes, Hemoglobinopathies, Hodgkin’s lymphoma, Inborn errors of metabolism, Multiple myeloma, Myelodysplastic syndromes, Neuroblastoma, Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, Plasma cell disorders, Primary amyloidosis, and so on.
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- You have to consider many health factors before Bone Marrow Donation. So, if any factors seem to affect the healthy bone marrow then it will create complications in Bone Marrow transplants.
- Both donor and receiver get the side effects for short term as well minor long term effects after transplant. The symptoms may include nausea and vomiting, Diarrhoea, Hair loss, mouth sores or ulcer, Infection, Bleeding, Anemia, Fatigue, and many more for both parties.
- There can be complications such as Organ damage. It is quite scary for after-effects changes.
- You can even get Liver or kidney problems as well.
- There can be a major problem in Infertility or sterility too. It will affect your sexual health. It is a big negative side effect for young people.
Everyone doesn’t need to face the side effects. However, you can categorize it as short-term (less dangerous) side effects and long-term (more dangerous) side effects. But if both the giver and receiver consult their doctors properly and fulfill all the requirements for Bone Marrow Donation both teams will have fewer side effects or no effects at all. So, consider your situation and you can take your measures according to your required situation.